Scientific Sessions of Agriculture and Horticulture
Agronomy is a branch of Agril science which deals with principles & practices of soil, water & crop management. It is a branch of Agril science that deals with methods which provide a favorable environment to the crop for higher productively it deals with the study of principles and preaches of crop production and field management. It is the study of the planet in relation to soil and climate. It deals essentially with all aspects of soil, crop and water management to increase productively of crops.
Horticulture may be broadly defined as the science and art of growing fruits, vegetable and flowers and crops like spices, condiments, and other plantation crops.
It is a science of cultivation of garden plants. The world horticulture is derived from the Latin word hortus meaning enclosure (garden) culture- meaning cultivation. Thus horticulture means culture or cultivation of the garden crop.
3. Plant protection:
Plant protection is the science and practice of managing pests, diseases and weeds that damage crops and other plants, and which can have a devastating effect on farmer livelihoods.
4. Land Reclamation, Earth Observation & Surveying, Environmental Engineering:
1. Land reclamation is a specific technologic way to maintain favorable conditions of lands, a natural resource that is critical for agriculture. Land reclamation implies a radical change of lands in the result of a set of measures. Among various land reclamation forms, irrigation and drainage are the most common.
2. Environmental Engineering: is the area of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and improvement of farming equipment and machinery. Agricultural engineers integrate technology with farming. … They design and build agricultural infrastructures such as dams, water reservoirs, warehouses, and other structures.
3. Earth Observation & Surveying: Satellite and airborne images are used as mapping tools to classify crops, examine their health and viability, and monitor farming practices. Agricultural applications of remote sensing include the following:
- crop type classification
- crop condition assessment
- crop yield estimation
- mapping of soil characteristics
- mapping of soil management practices
- compliance monitoring (farming practices)
Biotechnology is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life. The earliest biotechnologists were farmers who developed improved species of plants and animals by cross pollenization or cross-breeding. In recent years, biotechnology has expanded in sophistication, scope, and applicability.
The science of biotechnology can be broken down into sub-disciplines called red, white, green, and blue. Red biotechnology involves medical processes such as getting organisms to produce new drugs or using stem cells to regenerate damaged human tissues and perhaps re-grow entire organs. White (also called gray) biotechnology involves industrial processes such as the production of new chemicals or the development of new fuels for vehicles. Green biotechnology applies to agriculture and involves such processes as the development of pest-resistant grains or the accelerated evolution of disease-resistant animals. Blue biotechnology, rarely mentioned, encompasses processes in marine and aquatic environments, such as controlling the proliferation of noxious water-borne organisms.
6. Management and Economics in Rural Areas:
Management and Economics in Rural Areas: Agricultural economics, a study of the allocation, distribution, and utilization of the resources used, along with the commodities produced, by farming. In general, one can say that when a large fraction of a country’s population depends on agriculture for its livelihood, average incomes are low.
7. Ornamental Plants:
Ornamental Plants: Ornamental is a horticultural term that typically refers to those plants that are grown for commercial sale, but not for agricultural purposes such as food or fiber. Ornamental plants may include flowering, deciduous or evergreen trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, grasses, ground-covers, bulbs or houseplants.
8. Integration of Agriculture and Tourism:
Integration of Agriculture and Tourism: Agritourism is a business model that is growing in popularity as farmers recognize a need to diversify their operations and supplement their farm incomes. In addition, there is a growing public desire to engage in rural experiences and outdoor recreational activities. By combining agriculture and tourism, agritourism offers rural experiences to urban residents and economic diversification to farmers. Planning for agritourism requires a forward-thinking, locally-driven process. Planners must acknowledge agriculture as land use and business.
9. Plant Biotechnology And Plant Tissue Culture:
2. Plant Tissue Culture: Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of the known composition. Plant tissue culture is widely used to produce clones of a plant in a method known as micropropagation.
10. Plant Pathology And Plant Microbiology:
1. Plant Pathology: Plant pathology is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens and environmental conditions. Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes, and parasitic plants.
2. Plant Microbiology: Plant Pathology and Microbiology is Open access and peer-reviewed journal that involves the study of the biological nature of various plant pathogenic and useful microorganisms including fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses and phytoplasma.
11. Plant Physiology And Biochemistry:
Plant Physiology And Biochemistry: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry embraces physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, biophysics, structure, and genetics at different levels, from the molecular to the whole plant and environment.
12. Plant Breeding And Molecular Breeding:
Plant Breeding And Molecular Breeding: Plant breeding is the technology which is used for genetic modification, to place particular traits into plants. Molecular breeding such as marker-assisted selection and doubled haploids are immensely useful techniques. A technique of Plant Breeding is utilized by the organic cultivation.
- Transgenic Plants and Green Revolution
- Plant breeding in organic agriculture
- Plant Metabolism and Metabolic Engineering
- Modern Plant Breeding Techniques
- Molecular biology of plant cell
13. Plant Nanotechnology:
Plant Nanotechnology: The application of nanomaterials in agriculture aims, in particular, to reduce applications of plant protection products, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization, and increase yields through optimized nutrient management.
Despite these potential advantages, the agricultural sector is still comparably marginal and has not yet made it to the market to any larger extent in comparison with other sectors of nanotechnology application.
Nanotechnology devices and tools, like nanocapsules, nanoparticles, and even viral capsids, are examples of uses for the detection and treatment of diseases, the enhancement of nutrients absorption by plants, the delivery of active ingredients to specific sites and water treatment processes. The use of target-specific nanoparticles can reduce the damage to non-target plant tissues and the number of chemicals released into the environment. Nanotechnology derived devices are also explored in the field of plant breeding and genetic transformation.
The potential of nanotechnology in agriculture is large, but a few issues are still to be addressed, such as increasing the scale of production processes and lowering costs, as well as risk assessment issues. In this respect, particularly attractive are nanoparticles derived from biopolymers such as proteins and carbohydrates with low impact on human health and the environment. For instance, the potential of starch-based nanoparticles as nontoxic and sustainable delivery systems for agrochemicals and biostimulants is being extensively investigated.
14. Plant Morphology And Plant Metabolism
1. Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants. This is usually considered distinct from plant anatomy, which is the study of the internal structure of plants, especially at the microscopic level. Plant morphology is useful in the visual identification of plants.
2. Plant Metabolism: Plant metabolism is defined as the complex of physical and chemical events of photosynthesis, respiration, and the synthesis and degradation of organic compounds. This primary metabolism consists of chemical reactions that allow the plant to live.
15. Agricultural extension:
Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. Generally, the agricultural extension can be defined as the “delivery of information inputs to farmers.”
16. Sustainable agriculture:
Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways (meeting society’s food and textile needs in the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs) based on an understanding of ecosystem services, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment.
17. Organic farming:
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Organic farming continues to be developed by various organic agriculture organizations today.
18. Plant & Forest Ecology and Its Diversity:
Plant & Forest Ecology and Its Diversity Ecosystem diversity deal with the variations in ecosystems within a geographical location and its overall impact on human existence and the environment. Ecosystem diversity is a type of biodiversity. It is the variation in the ecosystems found in a region or the variation in ecosystems over the whole planet.
19. Soil Science & Water Management:
Soil Science & Water Management Soil is responsible for Agro ecosystems and Eco-agriculture which indirectly help in food security. Soil purifies groundwater, provides nutrients, help in the growth of plants and regulate the Earth’s temperature.
20. Weed science:
Weed science Weeds have existed since the advent of settled agriculture around 10,000 years ago it is been suggested that the most common characteristic of the ancestors of our presently dominant crop plants is their willingness their tendency to be successful, to thrive, in disturbed habitats, mostly those around human dwellings. Farmers have likely always been aware of weeds in their crops, although the evidence for their awareness and concern is nearly all anecdotal.
21. Seed Science:
Seed Science the study of the structure and development of seeds from the moment of fertilization of the egg cell on the maternal plant until the formation of a new plant from the seed. Seed science is divided into two sections: one section, known as carpology, studies the seeds and fruits of wild plants, and the other section studies the seeds of cultivated plants. Seed science is the theoretical basis of seed growing. Agricultural seed science also elaborates methods of evaluating and controlling seed material. The science is closely connected with botany, biochemistry, genetics, and other biological sciences.
22. Crop protection:
Crop protection is the science and practice of managing plant diseases, weeds and other pests (both vertebrate and invertebrate) that damage agricultural crops and forestry.
23. Agricultural soil science
Agricultural soil science is a branch of soil science that deals with the study of edaphic conditions as they relate to the production of food and fiber. In this context, it is also a constituent of the field of agronomy and is thus also described as soil agronomy.
24. Soil quality:
Soil quality is a measure of the condition of soil relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose.
25. Soil contamination:
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals, or improper disposal of waste.
26. Conservation Agriculture:
Conservation Agriculture: is defined as a sustainable agriculture production system comprising a set of farming practices adapted to the requirements of crops and local conditions of each region, whose farming and soil management techniques protect the soil from erosion and degradation, improve its quality and biodiversity, and contribute to the preservation of the natural resources, water, and air, while optimizing yields.
Agronomic practices included in CA are based on three core principles, which must be fulfilled concomitantly:
- Minimum soil disturbance.
- Maintenance of permanent soil covers.
- Cropping system diversity, crop rotations.
27. Soil biology
Soil biology is the study of microbial and faunal activity and ecology in soil. … Soil biology plays a vital role in determining many soil characteristics. The decomposition of organic matter by soil organisms has an immense influence on soil fertility, plant growth, soil structure, and carbon storage
28. Agricultural Toxicology:
Agricultural Toxicology: The most important risk in agriculture derives from exposure to pesticides. Pesticides are unique chemicals as they are intrinsically toxic for several biological targets, are deliberately spread into the environment, and their toxicity has a limited species selectivity.
29. Ecosystems and Climate Change Research
Ecosystems and Climate Change Research: Climate change is threatening plants, animals and their habitats. Research reveals that temperature changes and other shifts in climate are impacting plant growth stages, affecting migration patterns, threatening species survival and affecting water quality, among other factors.
30. Soil biochemistry:
Soil biochemistry: Soil biochemistry is one of the branches of soil science dealing with the formation and decomposition of soil organic matter, biochemical reactions of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, metals, and xenobiotics in soils, and biochemistry of the plant-root rhizosphere. This chapter is divided into eleven sections, the first of which provides a definition of soil biochemistry and its scope of influence.
31. Environment Pollution In Agriculture:
Environment Pollution In Agriculture: Contamination of the soil, air and water environments resulting from farming activities. The primary agricultural nonpoint source pollutants:
- nutrients (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus)
Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish.
33. Agricultural economics
Agricultural economics is an applied field of economics concerned with the application of economic theory in optimizing the production and distribution of food and fiber.
34. Forestry Sciences:
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands.
35. Probiotics and Health:
The digestive tract can be hostile to probiotics due to the acidity of the gut rather than the time of day you take them. Rather than sunrise or sunset, it’s more important to take probiotics with food, not on an empty stomach. On an empty stomach, the low pH (more acidic) is too harsh for bacterial survival.